Traffic engineering employs engineering methods and strategies to ensure that people and products are transported safely and efficiently on roadways. Traffic flow, which is closely related to traffic characteristics, is essential for the safe and efficient movement of people and products. Volume, speed, and density are the three fundamental factors of a traffic flow. The current road infrastructure cannot meet the city’s future needs in the absence of comprehensive city planning and traffic management. Because of the changing economy of middle-class households, pedestrian and car volumes have surged dramatically in the recent decade. Taking this into account, we created a project that detects vehicle activity, classifies cars, counts them, and stores them in SD.
Why is it necessary to count the number of vehicles on the road?
The width of cars is determined using two ultrasonic sensors. The sensors are wired to the Arduino microcontroller, which is then connected to the memory read/write module. The two sensors determine the width of cars when they pass close to the sensors. The vehicle is categorised based on its width. Car widths range from 1-1.4m, thus if the computed width falls within that range, the vehicle is categorised as a car, and a count is performed. A distinct txt file for each type of vehicle is produced on the SD card, and the counting number is displayed. “Type of vehicles: car = 1 num” will be displayed on the display.The model costs roughly 2000 INR (USD 60), is portable, and has a high level of acuracy.
Transportation engineering is one of the primary streams of civil engineering, and this project focuses on it. The goal of the project is to make counting work in the transportation industry easier and more efficient than it is now. This is accomplished by tying labour to the Internet of Things. The project’s goals are to solve common problems that can arise during car counting while also being less expensive than existing techniques. The traffic volume count is crucial when it comes to road widening and design. Toll gates in India take traffic volume counts, and corporations are given contracts, among other things. This strategy is not cost-effective. To address these issues, a project employing ultrasonic sensors was developed.
All of this information is saved on an SD card with a storage capacity of up to 8GB. The file can be saved as an excel sheet, a text file, or something else entirely. Because of the rapid growth of the world’s population, the number of vehicles on the road has increased, and the traffic data collected has changed throughout time. As a result, relying on traffic figures from the previous year is extremely challenging. It is prohibitively expensive to keep track of data indefinitely. Keeping this in mind, the project topic that was chosen to work on. Vehicle Traffic Volume Counter Arduino Uno Micro Controller HC-SR04 Required Components Sensors that use ultrasonic waves SD Card Reader SD Card Reader (less than 8gb) Wires to jump over Procedures to follow.
We must first set the model for both the vehicle count and the width computation. To do so, we’ll need to replace the two ultrasonic sensors in the road. The ultrasonic sensors should not be put in the same line, but rather on the opposite side. It is necessary to determine the distance between the two ultrasonic sensors. The SD card module and the Arduino Uno are connected. After everything has been set up, the car must be allowed to exit the model. The distance between the vehicle and the sensor is determined when the vehicle passes over the two sensors. Consider the distances d1 from the vehicle to the ultrasonic sensor 1 and d 2 from the vehicle to the ultrasonic sensor 2. The distance between two ultrasonic sensors is 2d
Congestion is a major issue in most cities throughout the world, and it has turned into a nightmare for residents. It is caused by signal delays, improper traffic signal timing, and other factors. The traffic light delay is hard-coded and independent of traffic. As a result, there is a growing demand for a systematic quick automatic system to optimise traffic control. The goal of this study is to use ARDUINO to create a density-based traffic controller system. When the traffic intensity at the intersection is detected, the signal timing changes automatically. The ARDUINO microcontroller was utilised in this project. The system includes infrared sensors (both transmitter and receiver) that will be installed on poles on either side of the road. It is turned on.
Over the years, the application of Intelligent Traffic Systems (ITS) for traffic congestion and jam management has achieved positive outcomes. Most developed cities are becoming smarter as a result of ITS, which uses various hardware and software technologies to collect traffic flow, automatically alter traffic signalling lights, and display vehicle speed limit displays. Excellent traffic information acquisition modules are required for a functional ITS, and many ways have previously been used. The manner in which traffic information gathering modules are installed and maintained has a considerable impact on the cost of ITS. The use of ultrasonic sensors for traffic flow has also been proposed in order to reduce installation and maintenance costs. The horizontal mounting of sensors, on the other hand, poses a hurdle.
Vehicle Traffic Volume
The growing number of cars as a result of global population development continues to put strain on road network infrastructure. Congestion and traffic jams are the outcome of this load on the road network. The process of rural-urban migration is also putting a lot of strain on city roads, particularly in emerging countries. Congestion continues to be a difficulty for engineers, planners, and legislators around the world, and a variety of strategies have been used to assist reduce its impact on the environment, health, and productivity of city people. Implementing better road network designs, as well as multiple carriage lanes that allow up to 8 cars to move at once, is one of the most basic ways for reducing congestion.
The advantage of such implementations is that they allow commuters to journey in a shorter amount of time than single or dual carriage lanes, with benefits such as reduced pollution, time and energy savings, and improved commuter comfort . The growth of the road network puts a lot of financial strain on developing country governments since they may have to pay a lot of money to compensate owners of properties that are too close to current highways in order to make room for expansion and raise money for road construction. This ejection option is thought to have a negative impact on the social interactions of those who are relocated as a result of it.
Use Of Arduino Uno
Adding more lanes may appear to be a straightforward solution, but it is costly to install anyplace in the world. The desire to overcome the obstacle has resulted in the development of a widely used technology known as the Intelligent Transportation System (ITS). ITS is a type of technology that uses a variety of sensing and connectivity devices to estimate traffic flow, density, and speed, and then utilise that information to make decisions to help optimise traffic flow . The ITS is thought to have begun in the 1980s in several developed countries and has evolved over time with the use of various Artificial Intelligence (AI) approaches . A important milestone for ITS after its beginning in the 1980s, according to Xiong et al. , was in China.
Under the simple average method, AADT is estimated as the total traffic volume passing a point.
Manual Count: The most common method of collecting traffic volume data is the manual method of traffic volume count.
Traffic Volume Count is measured to calculate Level of Service of the road and related attributes like congestion.