Regardless of the forces put on the ground by foundations, many types of soil movements can occur. As a result, suitable protection against such ground movements must be considered in order to prevent foundation failure. Ground movement mitigation may entail relocating the base to a soil that does not experience such movements or building a foundation that can withstand significant movements without causing structural damage. Various forms of ground motions and appropriate foundation types are addressed in this article. Movements in the soil Water seepage and surface erosion cause ground shifts.Vibrations cause ground movements. Hillside creep causes ground movements. Mining subsidence has caused ground shifts. Machinery on a foundation on filled ground.
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Types of Soil Movements
Soil movement is caused by a number of reasons, which are covered in the following sections: Clay Soil Wetting and Drying Due to Moisture Content Changes When the moisture content of the soil is increased, it swells significantly, and when the water is removed, it shrinks significantly. In addition to rising and lowering of ground throughout wet and dry seasons, this change in soil volume causes cracks to form during the dry season, and these cracks to close during the wet season. It is stated that such soil movement is more visible and significant in grassy soils than in non-grassy soils. Clay soil swelling and shrinkage, in particular, can cause significant damage to buildings placed on shallow foundations.
It may be claimed that such a depth of excavation for the entire structure is prohibitively expensive, which is why permitting movement between the foundation walls and ground floor slabs is recommended. Clay Soil Wetting and Drying Due to Moisture Content Changes The Effect of Vegetation on Soil Swelling and Shrinking In general, the presence of trees and vegetation results in dry soil to depths of 3 to 5 metres. According to reports, tree roots have a radius at least equal to their height, and vegetation and trees have caused significant structural damage.Tree-induced clay soil shrinkage occurs both horizontally and vertically, necessitating the consideration of appropriate countermeasures against soil settlement and tearing forces.
Ground Movements of Water and Surface Erosion
Because it has been demonstrated that such movement following the removal of a tree in an area can endure for up to 20 years, pile foundations are advised in regions where trees are growing. Clay shrinkage owing to high temperatures Clay soil beneath the foundations of furnaces, kilns, and boilers frequently dries up, resulting in significant shrinkage. The heat from the kiln was said to have reached a depth of 20 metres in clay soil. So, to avoid excessive soil shrinking, it is recommended to create insulation between the foundation of such constructions that emit a lot of heat and the clay soil beneath the foundation.
In sandy soil, water seepage and surface erosion are common difficulties. Internal soil erosion occurs when groundwater penetrates into a broken culvert or sanitary sewer system, causing fine soil particles to be carried along with the groundwater flow. Water seepage is likely to degrade soluble components of industrial solid waste material, resulting in soil loss beneath the foundation and, eventually, the structure failing. In mining subsidence areas, such an unfavourable outcome could occur. Water seepage has been observed as a concern in regions with dry loose sand and loess soil. In regions where the depth of such soil is less than 6m, it is recommended to compact it with a powerful hammer, and pile driving is recommended.
Ground Movements due to Vibrations
Surface erosion can occur as a result of material loss caused by flowing water or high winds. Fine sands, silts, and dry peats are examples of soils that are vulnerable to wind-driven surface erosion. Unless the problem is addressed properly, such as by digging the foundation down to 0.3m and planting vegetation in the area, or by covering the surface with crushed stone, gravel, or clay soil, the structure’s foundation may be jeopardised. When it comes to surface erosion caused by flowing water, this sort of erosion can be particularly problematic in areas prone to severe rains. It is believed that a standard foundation depth of 0.9 to 1.2m is insufficient to address such a problem.
As a result, suitable drainage and paving or other surface protection techniques are required. In such instances, piling foundations are recommended to minimise foundation difficulties and eventual heavy structural failure. Ground Movements Caused by Water Seepage and Erosion Vibrations Cause Ground Movements Various vibration equipment is commonly used to compact newly installed concrete and sandy soils. When poured concrete is subjected to vibration, its density increases and it settles significantly. When a structural foundation built on sands or sandy gravels is subjected to vibrations, it will experience the same phenomena. Vibrations can be transmitted to foundations from a variety of causes, including rock blasting, out of balance machinery, drop hammer, drive pile, and earthquakes.
Vibration Caused by Earthquake
High frequency vibrations with a frequency range of 500-2500 impulses per minute have been proved to create large and extreme settlements owing to vibrations in laboratory tests, field experiments, and prior structural damage observations. Vibrating sands, as well as adopting the required safeguards to reduce pile driven foundation influence on surrounding structures built on sands, are among the measures offered to combat the negative effects of vibrations on structural foundations. It is advised that special vibrating dampening devices be used for vibratory machinery supported by foundation structures or that foundations be excavated until a layer of soil that is not susceptible to vibration, such as soil, is realised.
Shallow soil thicknesses at specific hillside slopes would naturally slid and slip down, and such movement occurs frequently over a long period of time, as evidenced by signs such as leaning trees. It is advised that trial pits be excavated on slope slides to investigate the possibility of material pushed down from higher places moving in the future. It should be noted that structural weights have no discernible effect on the mass of slipping ground, and so foundation loading will not change the sliding safety factor; nonetheless, the construction process may have an impact on slope stability. It should be remembered that the presence of vegetation in the region improves stability, and that its removal during the construction process for clearance purposes is necessary.
Movements due to Mining Subsidence
The appropriate procedures to address such a problem vary depending on the type of hillside slope soil. For example, rocky hillside slopes can be stabilised with grouting or rock bolting, however it is recommended to avoid construction in such areas if clay soil is present because remediation is nearly difficult, or the structure’s foundation should be designed and built to move as a single unit.To Obtain Stability, Bolt Slopes Bolting Slopes for Stability Tress is leaning owing to hillside creep. Tress is leaning owing to hillside creep.Ground Shifts Caused by Mining Subsidence The existence of buried ancient mining sites could cause major challenges for the structure’s foundation. The vast majority of such jobs.
In order to protect structures in mining subsidence areas, a variety of recommendations must be addressed. When possible, the structure should be totally stiff or flexible, with simple spans and a flexible superstructure. The greatest solution for protecting compression and tensile fracture in the earth is a shallow foundation, such as a raft foundation. There are additional measures that can be utilised to protect structures in locations where there is a risk of subsidence. For example, articulation of the superstructure or substructure, hydraulic jacking beneath the wall or columns, and digging trenches around the structure to relieve compression strain. On Filled Ground as a Foundation Due to filled ground settlement, foundations built on filled ground may be damaged. Ground fill settlements are caused by three basic sources.
When it comes to the ideal soil type for foundations, loam may be the best option.
The foundation must have an adequate depth to prevent frost damage
A mat foundation takes full advantage of the surface area where the building will be erected.