To create a new city or Township, surveying must take into account all of the city’s development needs. In city surveying, development works such as street roadways, property boundaries, water and sanitary pipe position, electricity lines, telephone lines, and so on are included.Surveying Maps for a Municipality During surveying, proper maps should be developed for each of the city’s systems, such as:Map of the to pography Map of the city Map of the property Map of water supply and sanitation Map of Electrification Diagram of telephone lines Each map should be designed in such a way that it is simple to locate the desired spot. Each system is surveyed by the departments or authorities responsible for it.
Instruments for Surveying City
We must first understand the instruments used to conduct city surveying before we can discuss map production.Tripod-mounted transit theodolite Instrument for levelling with a Tripod Instruments for a plane Table Ranging rods, pegs, optical square, arrows, and other tools are used by the levelling crew.Metric system Tape made of metal Tape made of invar Preparation of many maps for a topographic map of a city The entire territory on which a township will be built is divided into a number of sectors during the development of a topographic map. Each sector is encircled by a polygon with a link on the common sides. Theodolite is used to conduct closed traversing in each sector. In each sector, plane table surveying is carried out, and internal details such as roads, parks, and lakes are plotted on the map. On the other hand.
Some essential or constant places are highlighted around the landscape, and reduced levels (RLs) are placed at those locations. The Fly levelling method is used to accomplish this. Contour surveys are undertaken using the tachometer method or the plane table method if there are any depressed areas such as valleys, lakes, or high-rise locations such as hills. The type of the ground is shown on the map by various marks, colours, and hatchings, among other things. Finally, all of the maps are combined to form a single map that depicts the topographic information of the entire city region. Township Survey Topographic Map Preparing a Street Map The construction of a street map is quite similar to the preparation of a topographic map, except that in this case the map is made with huge scale.
Preparing a Street Map
in comparison to a topographic map’s scale. In this example, the entire city is divided into a number of sections, each of which is surveyed using a plane table. The details of each street, including its name, road networks connecting streets, and road names, are listed on each sector map. Fly levelling is used to place benchmarks at various spots along the streets for future reference. Township Survey Street Map Preparing a Property Map The property map is a large-scale map that demarcates the borders between public and private properties. Plane table surveying is used to determine the boundaries. The region is identified on the map with plot numbers, premises numbers, and other identifiers when the boundaries have been established. By looking over the property map.
The plane table surveying is also done here by separating the entire region into pieces. Township Survey Property Map Preparation of a Water Supply and Sanitary Map Water supply lines and sanitary pipes are usually found underground. The entire network of water pipes will be mapped out. These pipes are depicted in the map by conventional lines, and a water supply and sanitary map is generated on street maps for easy pipe line location. Then, at any street or property, one can quickly discover the appropriate water supply point. Some significant locations are represented by specific symbols in this line, such as inlets, outlets, purification points, valves, manholes, inspection chambers, and so on.
Telephone Line Map Preparation
The network of electrical lines in a city is also placed underground. As a result, they can be found on street maps and are represented by conventional lines. Different coloured lines are used to distinguish electrical cables from water supply or sanitary lines, and each coloured line’s depiction is detailed in the map. The electric wire network is installed in the air in some regions, using concrete columns or poles. Electric wires are also represented by conventional lines in this scenario. Their position, on the other hand, must be described. Important points on the map, such as a supply point or a transformer position, should be marked with specific symbols.
Telephone cable lines, like water supply and electric lines, are installed underground and can be found on a street plan using different coloured conventional lines. Specific symbols are used to represent important points. After completing all of the aforementioned maps, they are presented to the city’s development authority, which will collaborate with relevant departments and assume responsibility for building the city according to the map. Municipalities, power boards, and telecommunications departments are among the departments involved.
A construction survey usually entails assessing present site conditions in preparation for future above-ground and underground infrastructure. Stake elevations for footings, collect topographic data for mapping existing drainage systems, invert elevations and diameters of pipe and manholes, and execute a variety of other tasks are among the services provided by land surveyors. The precise position of proposed structures, accesses, pipelines, buildings, and other enhancements is determined by land surveying services. Local companies or companies with local offices supply the majority of land surveying services. They usually have some background knowledge of the survey region, such as its history, soil and water conditions, sensitive areas, ecosystems, and protected species. This not only cuts the time it takes to arrive to the chosen location, but it also gives the customer crucial area insight ahead of time, allowing them to make better selections.
Due diligence can be included in land surveying services. Hazardous materials such as asbestos, lead, and PCBs may be detected by land survey teams and must be managed prior to demolition, new construction, or exploratory operations. Other concerns such as buried fuel tanks or ground water contamination may be discovered by land surveyors. How Pre-Construction Project Planning Benefits From Land Surveying Services A surveying business offers additional value to any project’s pre-construction planning stages. They provide site analysis, boundary and topographic surveys, maps, and plats, among other services. Assist in reducing the risk of future regulatory enforcement proceedings. Reduce or eliminate costly project schedule delays. Enhance project beginning efficiency with thorough regulatory planning. Provide information that aids in the definition of project scope and strategic pre-construction planning.
3D Scanning for Retrofits
Retrofitting entails reinforcing and extending the structural life of existing structures or equipment. Many existing structures, such as bridges, overpasses, and towers, are being adapted to withstand seismic shaking and shocks. Data is collected by surveying teams, which is then utilised to create a 3D model of the current environmental features, structures, and artefacts. Retrofit projects benefit greatly from 3D scanning for analysis, planning, and design. The surveying crew gathers data in the field and converts it into a computerised model that shows height, width, and depth. Buildings, utilities, construction, and structural objects such as pipe, cable, and plumbing are depicted in 3D maps and point clouds. When an existing building or structure (such as a bridge) is scheduled for retrofitting, this is quite useful.
There may be more than one surveying business involved in any one project. During the pre-planning phase, one surveying firm may well create fundamental criteria for other surveying teams to follow. A competent and reputable surveying firm can set the bar for job output and quality, as well as safety, timeliness, and deliverables. As a result of the indirect rivalry and expectation, project progress tends to accelerate. Furthermore, set standards help to clarify expectations, which helps to improve quality control. Software Tools for GIS and BIM (Building Information Modeling)Data from land and air surveys is used to create models and 3D mapping. Large-scale planning is aided by GIS (Geographic Information System) software. The information gathered can be evaluated and processed.
With computerisation, electronic distance measurement (EDM), total stations, GPS surveying and laser scanning.
The city surveying is the branch of surveying. By the term, city surveying is meant an extensive co-ordinated survey.
To get started in surveying you need a theodolite and a level (sight level, laser level or water level).