Following the final cleaning of the area, the repair process begins. The region must be dry and free of debris such as dust, oil, and grime. A clean surface is the foundation of any good restoration. Because most spall repairs are minor, the majority of mixing must be done in a small drum or mortar mixer. Some repair products are pre-mixed, while others let you to extend the mix by adding aggregate (the maximum size advised is 3/8 inch or 10 centimetres). Tamping must be used to consolidate the material, which should be supplemented by vibration if possible, and the surface must be treated to match the surrounding finish as nearly as possible.

Joint Filler

If the spalled region is close to an expansion joint or a crack, use a joint filler to keep the repair material from fouling the joint and keep the joint form. If the spall is close to a crack, it must be treated as an expansion joint. Repairing spalls must not include bridging cracks or expansion joints. The fracture must be generated in the same way as an expansion joint is formed. The joint filler should be the same width as the existing joint or crack, long enough to cover the spall area, and deep enough to fill the spall to its full depth.

NOTE: A bonding agent is applied to the concrete surface. Take note of the joint filler that surrounds the repair region.

Bonding Agents

To strengthen the binding between the patch and the patch repair materials, bonding agents are used. When utilising PCC as a repair material, a light coat of bonding agent is required. Consult the manufacturer’s advice on the usage of bonding agents if you’re using a rapid setting or polymer concrete. The bonding grout for PCC repairs is a one-part Portland cement to one-part sand combination with a water-to-cement ratio of less than 0.45. To achieve good contact with the repair surface, the bonding agent must be rubbed into cracks and crevices (See Figure above). Many repair materials are unique, and a proprietary bonding agent may be required. When using this type of material in a repair, the manufacturer’s instructions must be strictly followed. The bonding agent must be lightly coated or sprayed over the whole surface of the repair area, and the repair material must be applied once the bonding agent has attained a sticky consistency. A little bead of caulk can be used to prevent the bonding agent from dripping through small gaps where the joint filler meets the bottom of the spall recess.

Mixing and Placing

Due to the large variety of materials that can be utilised, the mixing and placement of spall repair materials might vary greatly. It is best to apply the repair material while the pavement temperature is between 55 and 90 degrees Fahrenheit (13 and 13 degrees Celsius) (32 degrees Celsius). If water is required, add the appropriate amount of clean, fresh water and thoroughly mix it together. Hand mixing takes nearly always longer than drum or mortar mixing. When hand mixing, it’s natural to add more water than is needed to make the process go faster. To achieve a satisfactory patching job, always follow the manufacturer’s guidelines for material mixing and curing. Temperatures below 40 degrees Fahrenheit (4 degrees Celsius) require special insulation and longer cure periods, and temperatures below 55 degrees Fahrenheit (4 degrees Celsius) require special insulation and longer cure times (13 degrees Celsius). In the summer, it’s preferable to put down repair materials early in the morning while the pavement is cooler. The optimum time to go skiing in the winter is in the afternoon.


To remove trapped air, the repair material must be completely consolidated after installation. Consolidation of cements and polymer concrete ingredients is required, either by tamping or, if appropriate, by vibration. For tiny repairs, vibrators with a small head (less than 1 inch or 25 millimetres) or vibratory screeds are advised. Grate tampers are not permitted. The repair material must be completed to match the surrounding pavement after consolidation. The image below shows a patch that has been completed. On both sides of the expansion joint, spall correction was performed. The spall repair is separated by joint filler.


Curing the material is critical, especially for partial-depth repairs, where the surface-area-to-volume ratio of the repair region is greater than that of a full-depth repair and bond strength develops considerably more slowly than compressive strength. Rapid water loss from the surface as a result of high temperatures, low humidity, and/or windy circumstances can cause significant surface shrinkage cracking. The mended area should be coated with two layers of presaturated burlap, which should then be covered with clean polyethylene sheeting for curing. Weighted plywood or form board is then used to cover the burlap and sheeting. All of the cover layers should extend 12 inches (300 millimetres) beyond the patch’s outline. Daily for at least 7 days, the coverings should be removed, the burlap resaturated, and the covers reapplied. After finishing the surface, cover the fresh PCC as quickly as feasible. To avoid severe shrinkage cracking, special curing techniques for rapid-setting concretes must be followed. These materials harden quickly, and if they dry too quickly, significant plastic shrinkage cracking may appear on the surface. It is necessary to follow the manufacturer’s guidelines for curing proprietary concretes.


The final repair step is to reinstall the sealant to maintain the existing joint or crack after the patch has dried. Re-sealing joints or cracks should wait until the concrete has finished hardening. The process of joint sealing is similar to that of crack sealing. A concrete saw, router, or hand saw is used to saw out the joint or crack adjacent to the spall to the same width as the previous joint or fissure. The joint filler must be manually or sawed away. To provide a satisfactory surface for sealant adherence, the sides of the saw cuts are sandblasted, compressed air blasted, and cleaned with high-pressure water. To eliminate any debris, sweep the area around the repair using a vacuum broom.

Placing Sealan

The sealant should be applied in the same way as crack sealants are applied: from the bottom up and in a smooth stroke from the beginning to the end of the joint or crack, if possible.


Following the completion of the repair, all equipment should be cleaned, oiled as needed, and carefully stored until the next repair operation.

Concrete Spalling is a phenomenon in which the top layer of reinforcing steel on a concrete slab flakes or peels near the surface. It can also extend to the top layer of reinforcing steel. Concrete with a diameter of 150 mm and a depth of 25 mm or more spalls as a result of freezing and thawing cycles. (wood)Concrete Spalling | Concrete Spalling Repair | Concrete Spalling Repair Methods | What Is Concrete Spalling? Concrete Spalling Causes Concrete Spalling Material factors such as concrete permeability, porosity, and moisture content, aggregate qualities, reinforcing, and the presence of fractures all have a significant impact on concrete spalling. Thermal constraint, heating rate and profile, and temperature level are among environmental factors that influence concrete spalling.Spalling can be divided into three categories, each of which has its own set of symptoms.

The corrosion of embedded steel reinforcement is the principal cause of concrete spalling. Concrete spalling is caused by the forming pressure in concrete. (Boq) Concrete spalling can also develop as a result of water in the concrete freezing and thawing. Concrete spalling can also be caused by structural flaws such as insufficient depth and poor concrete overlay over reinforcement. Corrosion-induced rust accumulations take up more volume, producing expansion and inducing tensile strains in the concrete, which can lead to spalling and cracking. Another major cause of RCC spalling is exposure to chloride ions, which increases the likelihood of spalling as the number of chlorine ions increases. When concrete is exposed to fire on a regular basis, it releases free water into the environment.

When concrete is subjected to fire on a regular basis, the free water in the concrete vaporises, resulting in internal expansion. Carbonation is a slow process that occurs in concrete as a result of CO2 penetration, and it finally leads to concrete spalling.Silica Alkali Concrete expands as a result of reaction, resulting in spalling. Absorption of water above a specific limit causes aggregate expansion. Joint spalls can be caused by improperly constructed joints. Due to the differences in shrinkage between the topping and base courses, bond failure is a real cause of spalling in two-course construction. Chemical attacks on concrete such as acidic rain, sulphate attacks, and Thaumasite are some of the chemical attacks that can cause it to spall.

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