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What is SOIL? Definition & Formation of SOIL

Soil Formation Definition Soil Mechanics Civil Engineering

SOIL ( What is SOIL ?)

Soil is a natural material found on the upper layer of earth. It is approximately brown or dark brown in color and contain many minerals. It may be organic or inorganic depends upon source of formation.

Formation of Soil

Formation of soil is done by the weathering. The soil is formed by a geological cycle in which weathering occur.

Weathering of Rock > Transportation of Soil > Deposition of Soil

Type of weathering in soil

There are mainly two types of weathering

  1. Physical weathering
  2. Chemical weathering

Physical weathering of SOIL:

The physical weathering is happen due to the physical changes like change in temperature, ice formation, tree root penetration and abrasion etc.

Due to physical weathering coarse grained and non cohesive soil is formed.

Example of physical weathering of soil: Gravel and Sand etc

Chemical weathering of SOIL:

The chemical weathering is happen due to chemical action on rock like hydration, carbonation, oxidation, leaching and hydrolysis etc.

Due to chemical weathering rock formed into clay mineral.

Example of chemical weathering of soil: Clay


Sedimentary SOIL

After weathering the soil Some time transported from their original place to another place and get deposited is called sedimentary soil.

Example of sedimentary soil:

  • Alluvial soil by River transportation
  • Lacustrine soil by lake transportation and deposition
  • Marine soil by sea water
  • Aeolian Soil ( like sand dunes and loess) by wind transportation
  • Colluvial soil ( like talus) by gravitational
  • Glacier soil (drift and till) by glacier

Residual Soil

The soil remains on the same original without transportation from rock is called residual soil.

Example: black cotton soil and laterite soil


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