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Prestressed Concrete Principles, Need and Advantages

Prestressing is the process of inducing compressive stresses in a structure before it is placed to its intended usage. Internal stresses are introduced in a predetermined manner in a prestressed concrete member so that the stresses resulting from the superimposed loads are counteracted to a desired degree.

Introduction to Prestressed Concrete

Modes: Process of induction of compressive stresses in the structure before it is put to its actual use is known as Prestressing. Prestressed Concrete member is a member of concrete in which internal stresses are introduced in a planned manner, so that the stresses resulting from the superimposed loads are counteracted to a desired degree. Prestressing is the intentional creation of permanent stress in a structure or assembly, for improving its behavior and strength under various service conditions.In ordinary reinforced concrete, consisting of concrete and mild steel as basic components, the compressive stresses are born by concrete while tensile stresses are born entirely by steel. The concrete only acts as a binding material; it does not take part in resisting the external forces.In prestressed concrete, compression is induced prior to loading in the zones where external loads would normally cause tensile stresses.

Prestressing is the process of inducing compressive stresses in a structure before it is placed to its intended usage. Internal stresses are introduced in a predetermined manner in a prestressed concrete member so that the stresses resulting from the superimposed loads are counteracted to a desired degree.

The purposeful introduction of persistent stress in a structure or assembly for the purpose of improving its behaviour and strength under diverse service situations is known as prestressing.

Compressive stresses are carried by concrete in standard reinforced concrete, which consists of concrete and mild steel as fundamental components, while tensile stresses are carried solely by steel. Concrete merely serves as a binding substance and does not contribute to the resistance to external forces. In a prestressed state

Long beams with strong shear pressures require big beam diameters to keep diagonal tensile stresses under control. The diagonal tensile stresses are reduced by prestressing. As a result, updated I-section and T-sections have been adopted, resulting in a significant reduction in web area. It is vital to employ both high strength concrete and high tensile steel wires in order to get the most out of a prestressed concrete member. The cube strength of concrete used for prestressed work should be 35 N/m m2 for post-tensioned systems and 45 N/m m2 for pretensioned systems. The expected prestress loss due to concrete shrinkage and concrete and steel creep is taken into account when designing a prestressed concrete part.

Advantages of Prestressed Concrete

1.Durability Because this technique reduces concrete’s tension weakness, such members remain free of fractures and can withstand the effects of impact, shock, and stress reversal more effectively than R.C.C. structures. They deliver consistent long-term performance in adverse situations that might otherwise degrade less durable materials. They are resistant to deterioration caused by extreme weather, chemical attack, fire, unintentional damage, and vandalism. Because precast components are built in heated plants, winter building can proceed with minor weather disruptions.

2. Flexibility Precast prestressed concrete products can be designed and built for a wide range of applications, from short span bridges to some of the world’s largest constructions. Allows precast component producers to greatly expand the design variation available.

Concrete’s intrinsic plasticity allows for the creation of precast components in a variety of shapes and sizes that would be prohibitively expensive using other materials.

3. Resistance to fire Fire does not easily harm pre-stressed concrete bridges. Have good fire resistance, minimal maintenance costs, elegance, and great corrosion resistance, among other things.

4. has a direct impact on the local economy Prestressed concrete is made by a small firm in the area that employs local workers. The majority of its raw materials are sourced locally, and the health of the local prestressed concrete sector has a direct impact on the economy. There is a significant cost savings in supporting parts and foundations due to lesser loads and smaller dimensions. Hollow core, double tees, beams, columns, and panels are examples of basic structural shapes that can be mass-produced.

5. Quick and simple construction Fast construction timelines are made possible by precast concrete components. While the site is being prepared, precast manufacture can begin. In any weather, precast components can be brought to the jobsite and placed as soon as they are needed. Faster construction equals a faster completion date and lower costs.For huge structures, it reduces the expense of shuttering and centring.

6. Aesthetics is the sixth point on the list. Precast components are available in a variety of shapes and finishes, from smooth thick structural sections to a variety of architectural treatments.Sandblasting and chemical retarders can be used to expose colour sands, aggregates, cements, and colouring agents, resulting in strikingly rich and varied surface textures and treatments.Custom form liners can be used to add reveals, patterns, and other details to your forms.

Designers can achieve the pricey look of masonry by casting stone, tile brick, and other materials into precast panels at the factory.

Prestressed Concrete’s Drawbacks Although prestressing has numerous advantages, it does have some disadvantages.Because high-tensile steel is commonly used, the unit cost of high-strength materials is greater. The usage of prestressing equipment and its installation incurs additional upfront costs. There are also additional labour and transportation costs associated with prestressing.For short spans and light loads, prestressing is not cost-effective.Comparison of RCC and Prestressed Concrete Beams The concrete on the compression side of the neutral axis is effective alone in RCC beams, whereas the concrete on the tension side is ineffective.

Design assumptions for prestressed concrete members The analysis and design of prestressed concrete members is based on the following assumptions: After bending, the member’s transverse plane section will also remain plane. Hook’s law applies to concrete and steel components within the limits of deformation taking. The length of the reinforcement has no effect on the stress in the reinforcement. Only the concrete component undergoes stress changes. Variations in reinforcement stress owing to changes in external loading are unavoidable.

Prestressed Concrete Principles Tendons apply a large prestressing force to the member, whereas anchoring devices create substantial bearing stresses at the ends.

The anchorages are typically designed to be used only with high-strength concrete. Low-strength concrete cannot withstand the busting forces that are likely to occur at the beam’s ends.When stress must be transferred to concrete through bond action, the concrete must be of high strength. When high-strength concrete is used, shrinkage fractures will be minimal. Because high-strength concrete has a high modulus of elasticity, the elastic and creep strains are modest, resulting in less prestress loss in all steel reinforcing.

CONCRETE STRUCTURES THAT HAVE BEEN PRESTRESSED

2. Reinforced concrete: In compression, concrete is strong, but in tension, it is weak. • Reinforced concrete employs concrete to resist compression and hold bars in place, while steel is used to resist tension. • R.C beams allow cracking under service load since tensile strength of concrete is ignored (i.e. 0).

3. Pre-stressed Concrete – External stressors are countered by inducing internal stresses. – Freyssinet’s attempt to introduce permanent acting forces in conc. to resist elastic forces under loads, dubbed “Pre stressing,” was first published in 1904.

4. Pre-stressing concept: Years ago, when metal brands were coiled around timber pieces to build barrels, the concept of pre stressing was invented.

5. Pre-stressing principle: • Pre-stressing is a method of applying compression force to a reinforced concrete section. • Pre-stressing has the effect of lowering the tensile stress in the segment to the point where it is less than the cracking stress. • As a result, concrete can be treated as an elastic material. • Concrete can be visualised as having two compressive forces. Internal pre-stressing force (i.e., internal pre-stressing force). External forces (d.l, l.l, and so on) • These two forces must balance each other.

6. Pre-stressing Principle: • When pre-stressing is applied at the c.g. of the section, it causes stress in the concrete.

7. Pre-stressing Principle: • Concrete is stressed when pre-stressing is applied eccentrically with respect to the c.g.

8 • There are two fundamental methods of applying pre-stress to a concrete member: pre-tensioning, which is most commonly employed in manufacturing conditions, and post-tensioning, which is utilised on-site. Pre-stressing comes in a variety of forms. Pre-tensioning is the first step. Before the concrete is poured, the tendons are tensioned against some abutments.

9. The tension force is released after the concrete has solidified. The tendon tries to return to its original length, but the concrete resists due to its link, causing compression force to be created in the concrete. Precast members are commonly used for pretension.

10. II. Post-tensioning • After the concrete has hardened, the tendons are tensioned in post-tensioning. Before casting, metal or plastic ducts are commonly put inside the concrete. After the concrete had solidified and had sufficient strength,

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