When there is a requirement for additional parking than can be accommodated in the surface lots served by a building or a service centre, parking structures are required. Parking is a significant consumer of both land and resources. In general, shopping malls require 1.5 square feet of parking for every square foot of leasable space. For office buildings, this is 1 square foot. Parking structures are extremely expensive to acquire and operate. Its construction costs are five times more than the amount spent on surface parking. Surface parking is not thought to be the highest and best use of a piece of property. The installation of parking, on the other hand, allows for a denser development or expansion of existing property.
Construction of Parking Structures Planning
Parking is granted acres of free land that is not used effectively. This can be used as a mode of transportation to make public transportation more affordable and to have better roads. When designing parking facilities, it is critical to understand how much parking is actually required. Along with that, the most cost-effective way to create it must be determined. This will offer you a clear picture of the finances and how much you will have to pay. Making a Parking Space Plan Parking generation refers to the maximal accumulation of parked vehicles generated by the land under current conditions.
The parking demand is the number of spaces that a single structure or a group of buildings must provide to allow parking. This includes additional parking spaces above and beyond the estimated peak vehicle accumulation. The demand for parking varies depending on the location. The variances will be determined by the area’s rate and density of development, the availability of public transportation, the policies in place in the area, the cost of parking, and the level of local economic strength. Starting with a national standard is a sensible strategy to determine parking demand. This standard assumes a 100 percent modal split for privately operated vehicles. The modifications are then performed based on the data.
Parking Demand Issues
Parking Demand Issues The parking demand is vulnerable to a variety of challenges when planning. These concerns are listed below: Unit Problems Day and Hour Issues in Design Supply Accessory Uses That Work Uses that are complementary Unit Problems Parking demand is typically stated as a ratio of x spaces per y unit of land usage. The majority of the ratio is expressed in square feet or square metres of building area. The computation is done using the old standard methodology, which is based on the net floor area (NFA). This is determined as a measurement from inside to inside. However, many people use the gross floor area (GFA), which is an outside-to-outside assessment of a building’s area. The term “gross leasable area” (GLA) refers to the amount of space that can be leased.
The gross leasable area (GLA) is the gross floor area (GFA) that is leased by the tenants. We refer to a land type as GLA when several tenants occupy it.Create a schedule for the day and hour.Another significant issue is the requirement for parking analysis in order to choose a realistic design day and hour. It is not advisable to install a parking system to accommodate a number of vehicles equal to peak accumulation. As a result of this decision, the parking lot will remain free during non-peak hours.A parking system should not be built to accommodate an insufficient number of automobiles. A regression curve representing the average value of peak vehicle accumulation is provided by the parking generation.
When conditions emerge when the parking system’s efficiency falls short of expectations, the necessity for effective supply becomes critical. When a car is misparked, the region is covered in snow, or there is a need for vehicle manoeuvres, the ability to compensate for extra space is required. This means that when there is a need for a supply cushion, the parking demand must be planned for. The total amount of parking generated plus the effective supply cushion equals parking demand. Uses of Accessory These are areas of land that are not used for a primary activity generator. However, they play a part in the needed operation. When determining the parking area land, these areas become a concern.
We call complementary usage when land space in a multi-tenant building is leased and used to serve the primary tenant. These have a distinctive parking feature. This may result in different users sharing the parking space. The parking requirements of a coffee shop in a multi-story structure, for example, can be calculated at the same rate as office space. Multiple tenants in a mixed-use building must adhere to the rules. the highways for cities like Mumbai and Delhi Parking structures share many characteristics with buildings, but they also have their own set of characteristics. A parking structure’s unique feature is that it almost always requires a vehicular circulation system to give access from one floor to the next, which necessitates sloping ramps.
Special Framing Features
A parking facility must include a traffic circulation system on each level, as well as common access from one level or tier to the next, which necessitates the use of sloping ramps and helices. The parking circulation system is divided into numerous basic configurations. Slanted or divided floors are depicted in. The selection of a circulatory system is a difficult design problem since it is influenced by a number of elements. The column configuration is influenced by the sloping and divided ramps. In sloping or split-level ramps, depicts an interior column elevation. In facilities where all bays must be flat, speed ramps or helices are commonly used for vehicle access and exit. depict a double-threaded helix as an example.
System Long-span systems are structural frame systems that span the driving and parking stalls and are widely used. Members of such systems range in length from 16.7 to 19.8 metres (55 to 65 ft.). Because of the effective use of concrete and the benefits of having clean space within, long-span systems gained favour in the 1970s. Today’s market is dominated by post-tensioned and precast concrete solutions. Steel parking buildings are also employed, as well as hybrid constructions with concrete floors and steel framing. A parking structure can be either a stand-alone construction or an integrated part of a multi-use facility. The former kind is discussed in this study, which includes a brief overview of the state-of-the-art in the design and construction of double-tee precast-prestressed and post-tensioned concrete parking structures in the United States.
Double-tees, which evolved from older precast flooring technologies, are used in the majority of precast parking facilities. Flange-to-flange connections and a field-placed concrete topping served as the riding surface in the previous double-tee version. More contemporary double-tee systems are factory-topped, meaning the entire deck thickness is cast as one piece. Although the methods for attaching structural parts differ, they must meet two performance requirements: structural strength and corrosion resistance. While factory-topped double-tee systems are common throughout the United States, their use in high seismic zones, where a monolithic topping for the floor diaphragms is required, is under examination. A shared floor and ramp system is made out of a one-way cast-in-place concrete slab that is cast integrally with the beams. The beams are held up by columns or girders.
The columns in parking garages have unequal storey heights and are susceptible to exceptional stresses compared to ordinary buildings because of the sloping floors. An interior column is often short, off-set loaded from both sides with pre-stressing effects, prone to large joint shears and moments associated with long-span construction, and subject to volume variations, as shown Due to insufficient joint confinement, cracks may form in the beam-column joints.
One of the most common problems today is a saturation of parking spaces.
Shortage of parking space, high parking tariffs, and traffic congestion due to visitors in search for a parking place.
The lack of parking space in major Indian cities is caused due to an increase in the number of cars.
Working at Heights in Construction – Regulation and Precautions