Bridge construction requires planning because it has such a large impact on people’s lives. Bridge construction must take into account social, scientific, and technological factors.
The choice to build a bridge across any barrier is made to make life easier for the people who live on both sides of the project. Some huge bridges, such as those built across the Ganga or the Brahmaputra in India, benefit the entire country. Another example is the Honshu-shikoku connection, which spans multiple Japanese islands and includes bridges. As in the case of the Oresund link, which spans the Baltic, this one-of-a-kind structure construction helps more than one country.
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Three Dimensions of Planning for Bridge Construction
In the planning of any megaproject, such as a bridge, there are three dimensions to consider. This is seen as a first step toward the design of structures that will eventually result in a project that is beneficial to the community in every way. The three dimensions are as follows:Dimensions of Science The Social Aspect Dimensions of Technology Bridge Construction Dimensions Based on Science There are some natural rules that must be followed by any structure that is built. Scientists use specific inter-relationships between particular elements to explain these natural forms and the presence of these laws.The scientists or engineers, in one form or another, make use of pre-existing technology in nature; the only difference is the way they utilised to do so.
Various scientific developments made by engineers are based on these; for example, chemical analysis is used to bring different alternative materials, physics is used to observe and analyse the dynamic behaviour of the structure, and mathematics is used to analyse and determine the forces and stresses. As a result, the scientific dimension aids in the development of efficient structures.
Social Dimension for Bridge Construction
The construction of bridges substantially facilitates the improvement of people’s quality of life. People’s mobility and material mobility are both improved by these structures. This dimension aids in understanding the benefits and drawbacks of such a structure, as well as the precautions that go along with them. Such a massive structure not only affects society and people, but it also has a negative impact on the environment.
It is not only necessary for bridges to meet the requirement for mobility and future needs, but they must also address issues such as noise and pollution during and after construction. People are likewise committed and responsible for making their contribution to this welfare in the form of taxes, levies, or tolls, as the structure is for the wellbeing of the entire community. This would aid in viewing construction as a cost-effective project and a source of economic development.The social component encompasses the aforementioned concerns. There is also the possibility of integrating the political and social dimensions. This might happen when deciding on a location or a building.
Technological Dimensions for Bridge Construction
Over the years, there have been several technological advancements in the fields of new structures, construction processes, and materials as a replacement for rare ones, as well as the introduction of new machinery that replaces human employees.
This technology has aided in the development and refinement of bridge construction alternatives. Instead of bricks, steel, cement, and other materials, glass fibres, carbon fibres, and other materials are being used in construction.The first FRP material bridge was built in China in 1982 as a result of such technological advancements. It has a clear span of 20.4m and is made up of five box girders.
Carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) cables with a strength of 3300MPa and a modulus of elasticity of 165GPa were also developed. Such cables are used on the Winterthur Bridge in Switzerland. This material is used in two of the twenty-two cables. Steels with better capabilities, such as high strength ranging from 60 to 100 MPa, are available, as well as ductility and corrosion resistance. As a result, new construction options such as arches, cable-supported structures, slender structures, and longer spans have emerged.With the use of new tools such as scale models, computers for large-scale research, and aerodynamic studies, the precise behaviour of structures may be clearly understood.
Engineers are being obliged to build bridges with bigger capacities as new heavy trucks with massive capacities are developed. This will have an impact on the bridge’s strength and proportions, as well as the maintenance required.
All of this has a greater influence on the environment, such as increased air pollution and natural resource depletion. These vast constructions are made up of a large volume of concrete, which is made up of natural aggregates.When it comes to a structural engineer’s concerns, the scientific dimension becomes the major criterion. However, he must strike a balance with the other two aspects, namely the social and technological.
Planning Sequence for Bridge Construction
The planning sequence for a new highway or railway project is an important aspect of the overall project planning. Because additional analysis is required due to the intricacy of the barrier across which the bridge must be built, the project planning becomes more detailed. The primary processes involved in the planning for the construction of a new project are listed below in general:Identifying the bridge’s requirement Assessment of potential and needed traffic in the area where the bridge will be built Examine the area.Examining all potential options Refining and narrowing down all viable options Developing conceptual plans for the various options. This entails locating the resources, as well as arranging the span and form.
Traffic Assessment for Bridge Construction
To determine the following factors, an assessment of the traffic type and volume is required:The number of lanes on a road or the number of tracks on a railway The parameters of geometric design Benefits that the society has reaped The data gathering for this must be done with care so that a clear picture of how traffic patterns, growth strategies such as agricultural, industrial, and commercial development are influenced may be obtained. The first stages of bridge construction need a significant investment. It is not advisable to make minor changes or renovations after the project has been completed.
As a result, bringing a design that incorporates future capacity requirements and traffic considerations is recommended. The following factors should be taken into account when conducting a traffic assessment study. This is primarily accomplished with the assistance.
Location Study for Bridge Construction
While conducting a location analysis and determining the bridge’s placement, it is critical to consider the requirement for the location of any cross drainage works. If it must be done, cross-drainage work is estimated to cost 15 to 20% of the total project cost. As a result, before deciding on a bridge alignment, all feasible CD works and their consequences must be determined. The following factors are regarded reliable in determining the bridge’s location.A brook with no bends or meanders was chosen as the location. It will be within easy reach.There are no branches or tributaries in a stream.The location is constrained by well-defined banks.If the bridge or culvert is close to the road.
Upstream, the river must be straight. It must be avoided if there is a curve in the downstream. The river in the reach must be clear of whirlpools and eddies, as well as excess current. The passage must be narrow and well defined in order to be reached. The river regime should have solid, inerodible banks. Over gorging, guide banks in dry regions must also be provided if there are no inerodable banks. Methodologies During floods, the approaches must be protected from flooding and significant spills. The use of high-cost approach construction should be avoided. It is advisable to avoid passing through densely populated areas, high hills, significant basins, or holy monuments.The approaches are rather close to the main road. It should not allow construction to take place.
Break Ground, Compaction of Soil, Pour Abutments Girder Placement.Decking Plan Railings Installed.
A bridge’s lifespan extends decades into the future, requiring careful planning in every aspect of its design and construction.
Bridge construction tends to involve huge projects that encompass.