The building of embankment dams is divided into four broad divisions of activities, which are as follows: Activities involving the production of material sources Activities for laying the foundation Operation to fill the construction site Construction activities ancillary to the main project Embankment Dam Construction Construction of an Embankment Dam Activities to Develop Material Sources Opening quarries from which necessary materials can be obtained, as well as installing stationary equipment such as crushers and conveyors to transport crushed materials to a specific place, are all part of the material source development activities. Another material source development operation is the construction of highways between several quarries and the embankment dam. These roads are frequently used to carry and haul materials to the embankment dam, as well as to move transportation and haulage equipment between different portions of the quarry.
Construction of Embankment Dam
Drying out the foundation area is one of the first tasks that must be completed properly. This is normally accomplished by building a temporary diversion tunnel along the embankment dam’s sidewalls. The Hoover Dam is being built in the United States. Inlet entrance of a diversion tunnel utilised in the construction of the Hoover Dam in the United States. Such a tunnel might also house outlet works. Sometimes, instead of a diversion tunnel, an outlet culvert is built through or under the embankment dam, and this outlet culvert is used for river diversion. At this time, earth fill source development is another construction activity. This can be done in conjunction with river diversion projects. Weathered materials, which moved due to earlier works, were discovered after the previous works were completed.
In some circumstances, the soil foundation strength needs to be improved. In addition, prepare the area ahead of time and construct sand drains. During this step, the necessary instruments and tools are also installed. These devices are used to not only detect pore water pressure but also to monitor the functioning of the cutoff point. Finally, the drainage blanket is placed beneath the downstream shoulder to complete the foundation building step. In the embankment dam, a drainage blanket is placed. shows the placement of a drainage blanket in an embankment dam. Operation of Filling Construction It’s yet another dam-building project that could be completed quickly. The materials utilised should meet the applicable code’s standards. In terms of fill placement, weather conditions, as well as possible variances, may have an impact.
Fill Construction Operation
Water content, thickness of compacted soil layer, and compaction effort are all aspects that influence the quality of the construction. As a result, fill installation cannot be done successfully unless the work is thoroughly overseen and monitored. The quality and homogeneity of compacted core fill are extremely important and must be taken into account. Then, the placement of horizontal drain layer in both shoulders at a vertical distance of 3-6m is proceeded. This construction activity is required to manage pore water pressure in cohesive materials with poor permeability and boost consolidation speed.
While fill material is being installed, equipment and instruments for the core and shoulders are being installed. The building of protection measures, such as an armoring layer upstream of the embankment dam, is the concluding activity of this stage. Construction Activities for Ancillary Works It may entail the building of a spillway, a stilling basin, a tunnel or a culvert for outlet works, valve towers, drainage works, a wave wall, a road, and the grassing of the downstream face of the embankment dam in weather-safe locations.Dam’s Spillway Darbandikhan Dam’s Spillway in Iraq’s Kurdistan Region Dam’s Spillway The spillway of the Darbandikhan dam in Kurdistan, Iraq, is used to remove surplus water. Grassing on the other side of an embankment dam Grassing downstream of the.
Dam on the Embankment Earthfill embankment dams and rockfill embankment dams are the two main types of embankment dams. An earthfill embankment dam is constructed by embedding a foundation wall into the rock beneath the dam to prevent water from flowing beneath it, and then erecting an impermeable clay core on top of it. The rest of the construction is made of earth, usually from the local area. The dam is held in place by a mass of soil and clay. A rockfill dam is made up of rock rather than dirt, with an impervious covering on the dam’s upstream face to prevent seepage through the porous core. Both types of dams, on the other hand, can withstand a certain level of seepage.
A dam built from natural materials excavated or collected nearby is known as an embankment dam. As bulk fill in zones within the dam section, the materials available are used to their best advantage in terms of their qualities. Using high-capacity mechanical equipment, the natural fill materials are placed and compacted without the use of any binding agent. As a result, embankment construction is a nearly continuous and highly mechanical process that is more equipment-intensive than labor-intensive. Earthfill or rockfill dams are the two most common types of embankment dams. Many dams use both types of fill materials within adequately designated internal zones, so the distinction between the two embankment types is not absolute. A homogenous section is used in small embankment dams and a small percentage of bigger embankments.
Concrete face rockfill dam
The latter serves a structural role, ensuring that the impervious portion and the segment as a whole remain stable. Embankment dams come in a variety of shapes and sizes, depending on how the available materials are used. The basic classification of earthfill or rockfill embankments provides a useful framework for examining the main variations used: Earthfill embankments: If compacted soils account for more than half of the volume of material poured, the embankment is classified as an earthfill dam. Engineered soils are compacted consistently and vigorously in relatively thin layers and at a controlled moisture content to build an earthfill dam. Rockfill embankments: A distinct impermeable element of compacted earthfill or a slender concrete or bituminous membrane is included in the rockfill embankment section.
Rockfill embankments with relatively extensive impermeable zones of compacted earthfill are referred to as zonal rockfill dams or earthfill–rockfill dams. Decked rockfill dams are rockfill embankments with a thin upstream membrane of asphaltic concrete, reinforced concrete, or another non-natural material. The amount of fill material saved by using rockfill for a dam of a given height is significant. It is caused by the frictional nature of rockfill, which results in relatively high shear strength, as well as high permeability, which almost eliminates pore water pressure concerns. There are just too many different types of earthfill and rockfill embankments in use to list them all. The embankment dam has a number of excellent qualities that combine to secure its dominance in the future.
Earthfill dam, also called earth dam or embankment dam, dam built up by compacting successive layers of earth.
It is typically created by the placement and compaction of a complex semi-plastic mound of various compositions of soil or rock.
The two principal types of embankment dams are earth dams and rock-fill dams, depending on the predominant fill material used.