Building materials such as stone, bricks, and concrete can be used to construct structures. Each material has a unique feature that distinguishes it from the others. In other words, each of these materials has its own set of benefits and drawbacks; therefore, the optimal material choice should have a balanced set of attributes ranging from strength, elemental damage resistance, durability, availability, lifespan, cost, protectiveness, and ease of use.
The most basic natural building material is stone. People all across the world have combined them to construct dwellings that are suited to their local climate. Stones are commonly employed as basic structural elements in constructions. For as long as history can remember, stone constructions have existed. It is the most durable building material ever devised, and it is typically readily available. Stones are also incredibly long-lasting. It will not decay, corrode, or be easily burned. It lends the appearance of solidity and strength to construction structures. Stone buildings may be found in most major cities, and certain civilisations, such as Egypt’s Pyramids, were built completely of stone. Because stone is a dense material, it provides a lot of information.
The disadvantage is its weight, which is extremely high when compared to bricks and concrete. As a result, transportation from the quarry to the construction site will be expensive. Furthermore, constructing stone structures is a time-consuming process.
Bricks, on the other hand, are typically formed of clay. Clay bricks are made in a mould by extruding clay through a moulding mechanism and then cutting it to the desired size. These heat-hardened bricks are far more flame retardant and moisture resistant than concrete, which is very important in congested cities. It prevents heat damage from fires because to its flame retardant quality, which is beneficial for protection. Not to mention its moisture-resistance property, which prevents water particles from deteriorating the brick strength by disrupting the solid-bonds of the brick from any source, such as rain. The building will have a longer lifespan as a result of this. Furthermore, bricks are particularly resistant to compressive forces, making them ideal for skyscraper construction. Bricks are also noted for their ease of fitting regular shapes, particularly polygonal shapes. However, while bricks are durable, they are not as durable as stone. Bricks are neither as pricey as stone or as inexpensive as concrete, but they are reasonably priced.
Concrete, on the other hand, is made by blending water, a specific cement, and ground rocks. A chemical process known as hydration causes concrete to solidify and harden after it has been mixed with water and placed. The water reacts with the cement, which binds the other components together, forming a stone-like material that is both strong and durable.
Furthermore, because of its very low time-consumption affair, it is widely utilised in constructions. Due to its fluidity before hardening, concrete may be shaped into a variety of shapes, which aids in the design of complicated architectural structures. Furthermore, the basic materials used to create it are more widely available than those used to make bricks. Because concrete has a poor tensile strength, it is usually reinforced by steel rods or bars. In the current era, concrete has become the most used building material. Furthermore, while concrete is inexpensive and long-lasting, it is believed to be less sturdy and long-lasting than brick and stone structures. Concrete has a high compressive strength, which means it can withstand a lot of pressure. Furthermore, concrete has a very low thermal expansion coefficient. Furthermore, concrete has a low coefficient of thermal expansion, which means it is less resistant to stretching forces caused by thermal expansion on hot days. As a result, it cracks as it stretches past its limit. In comparison to stone and bricks, concrete that is subjected to long-duration stresses is prone to creep, which can lead a building to become unstable and hazardous for further protection.
As a result, stone can be used as a construction material. The reason for this is that, while creating a stone structure takes a lot of energy, time, and money, the most important goal is to ensure that people’s lives are kept secure. No one wants to dwell in a structure that is doubtful of its ability to give shelter, even if the stone is a very reliable material. In addition, when compared to the other two, stone is the most powerful. Stones are also quite easy to come by. Furthermore, stone is a very long-lasting material. Natural disasters such as fire, floods, storms, and other natural disasters, with the exception of earthquakes, cannot destroy or decimate stone constructions as easily as they can wood structures.
Furthermore, stone lends the structure a sense of solidity and strength that the other two elements lacked. Stone has been demonstrated to be the greatest choice for shelters even before the foundation of bricks and concrete due to its undeniable strength, as seen by the existence of the Pyramid in Egypt, which was built thousands of years ago using stones and is still standing today.
The so-called basic structure is still standing today. It’s also said that when it comes to abandoned buildings, concrete structures are the first to deteriorate, followed by brick structures, although stone constructions can remain for thousands of years even after being subjected to nature’s wrath. Last but not least, a building’s look of permanence and strength gives its visitors a sense of serenity and security, leading them to believe it is the finest building for whatever purpose it was built for.
The storey of the three tiny pigs is well-known. One constructs a home out of straw, another out of sticks, and still another out of bricks. The big evil wolf easily destroys the first two houses, but the brick house stays firm, demonstrating the value of hard effort and selecting the correct building material for your structure.
While no big terrible wolf is going to blow your house or business down, some building materials are better suited for your project than others. The majority of structures nowadays are made of wood, steel, concrete, or masonry. Each material has its own set of advantages and disadvantages to consider.
To balance cost, aesthetics, structural integrity, and longevity, most engineers and architects use a combination of these materials in their designs. We’ll go over those strengths and weaknesses in detail so you can take an active role in reviewing the design of your structure.
structure with a wood frameFor thousands of years, humans have used wood to construct shelters and constructions. Despite centuries of scientific advancements and the development of numerous synthetic materials, wood remains a popular building material.
The appeal of wood stems from the fact that it is relatively inexpensive. It’s also simple to work with and lightweight. It works as an insulator, allowing warm air to enter while keeping cold air out.
While it may appear that felling trees to construct a structure is terrible for the environment, wood can be an environmentally friendly option if purchased from a responsible timber supplier committed to sustainable forestry. In addition, wood has a lesser carbon footprint than other materials since it requires less water and energy to manufacture.
Wood, on the other hand, has a few disadvantages. Wood isn’t usually the best choice for holding a lot of weight, thus it’s not the best choice for multi-story buildings. Moreover, unlike other synthetic materials, wood only lasts a few hundred years before decaying. It’s also prone to fire and moisture damage, as well as being a target for destructive termites.
Several engineered wood products have been developed to alleviate some of the drawbacks of traditional wood. These are composite materials formed by combining wood particles, fibres, strands, or veneers to form a composite material.
These composite materials, which are engineered and manufactured to exact specifications, can often handle loads big enough to replace steel and concrete in some structural applications. They may also be moisture and fire resistant. It is crucial to note, however, that these durable manufactured materials may be more expensive than conventional wood.
STEEL FRAME FOR THE BUILDING
Steel is a popular building material since it is both strong and lightweight. This makes it an excellent choice for multi-story structures, as well as manufacturing and industrial operations. Steel, unlike wood, can withstand dampness and is resistant to termites and fire. It will also survive a lot longer than wood.
In contrast to masonry, steel can accommodate large, open designs while maintaining the structural integrity of the building. It’s also bendable, allowing architects to experiment with more unusual building shapes.
Steel materials are consistent and predictable as a manufactured material, making repeatable, exact, and precise craftsmanship easier to create.Steel, on the other hand, is more expensive than wood for framing a building. A qualified structural engineer will be able to save money by utilising only enough steel to create your structure safely and withstand the aforementioned load while keeping track of and limiting extraneous costs.