The different types of earthen wall construction, their classifications, material qualities and tests, and earthen construction for seismically vulnerable places are all described. Earthen materials have long been utilised in building construction, and their use is still widespread due to benefits like as low cost, aesthetics, heat insulation, and low energy use.Earthen materials, on the other hand, have significant drawbacks, such as limited resistance to water influences and low strength.
Material Testing for the Construction of Earthen Walls
Material Testing for the Construction of Earthen Walls Various tests should be carried out to determine the appropriateness of the material. The tests that are often used to identify earthen material qualities include the dry strength test, fissuring control test, and adobe strength test. These tests are described in the sections below: Earthen Material Dry Strength Test Crushing five or six 20mm diameter balls between thumb and forefinger after they have been formed and dried for 48 hours is part of the dry strength test method. If the earthen balls remain undamaged and undamaged, they are deemed to have appropriate clay content and are recognised as construction material. Nonetheless, it is vital to take the appropriate steps to prevent minor fissures from forming.
Using a mixture of clay and coarse gain sand, a fissuring control test is performed on eight sandwich units built from mortar. The proportions of coarse sand to soil stated range from 1:0 to 1:3.The ideal soil-to-coarse-sand ratio would offer the required strength for earthen building. If the sandwich does not display apparent fissures when it is opened after 48 hours, it has the requisite qualities and can be used as a construction material. Block vs. Adobe Strength Test The strength of earthen blocks is estimated qualitatively rather than quantitatively in this test. The produced block, which has been sun dried for four weeks, must be able to sustain an individual’s weight without failing; otherwise, the fibres and clay should be mixed in with the soil.
Construction Techniques for Earthen Walls
Hand moulded layer construction, adobe or block construction, pise or tapial construction, and earthen construction with wood or crane structure are all examples of earthen wall construction techniques. The following sections go over these techniques in detail: Earthen Wall Construction with Hand Molded Layers Because of the inadequate compaction obtained and the small amount of moisture used to make hand moulding, this method of earthen wall construction is considered the weakest. As a result, neither compaction nor moisture can activate the clay content. Furthermore, even if the amount of moisture used is insignificant, it is quite likely that fissures will form to some extent. This is something that has to be addressed.
Clay or plastic blocks are the most durable, but they must be carefully dried to avoid shrinkage. To determine the appropriateness of the applied soil, test strength should be utilised. Fissures can be avoided by adding clay and sands to the mix, or by removing any restrictions from the block while it is drying.
Furthermore, it should be noted that the most important component affecting wall strength is the joint between blocks, followed by the role of block strength.Furthermore, it is necessary to pay attention to the mud used between joints. Because the mud is in direct touch with the block, it may lose moisture, resulting in microscopic fractures.
Methods and Material Tests
Finally, certain precautions should be taken during block construction, such as ensuring that the courses are level, that vertical joints between successive courses are broken by block overlap and properly filled with mud, and that right-angle joints between walls are executed in a way that prevents continuous vertical joints.
Construction of an Earthen Block Wall : Construction of an Earthen Block Wall Building a House using Earthen Blocks Building an Earthen Block House Construction of a pise or a tapial Pise or tapial building entails the use of forms and the forceful pouring of moist soil into the forms, which is then solidified to the necessary degree. The pise or tapial construction’s strength is determined by the degree of compaction accomplished as well as a little amount of moisture.
If the soil being utilised contains clay, a high-strength wall can be obtained by employing proper compaction and a sufficient amount of moisture.Furthermore, if the amount of clay is large and the moisture level is low, there is a risk of fissure formation. As a result, sand should be introduced to eliminate this problem.In addition, the number of blows necessary to compact the soil is determined by the shape and weight of the equipment. Great compaction can result in high strength, although this statement is only true to a point, namely when the soil does not adhere to the form while it is being removed.
Finally, it is recommended that you utilise compaction equipment with Earthen Wall a mass of 8 to 10 kg and deliver 50 blows per 1000cm2. Furthermore, the compacted layer should be no more than 10cm thick, and the height of each bock should be between 50 and 80cm. To achieve a monolithic construction, water should be put into sub joints every 10cm.Construction of a Pise or Tapial Pise or Tapial Construction Earthen Building with a Cane or Wooden Structure As shown , a structural framework made up of horizontal wood or cane pieces and vertical posts is used in this building style.Panels would be filled with cane and then both sides would be covered after the construction was installed.
If the needed building measures are not effectively accounted for, the desired behaviour of an earthen structure may not be accomplished. Protective layers, such as coal tar painting, should be applied to the surface of cane or wood elements, especially when such elements are embedded in foundations, and foundations should be built with stone, concrete, or bricks laid with gypsum, cement, or lime mortar. Furthermore, the panel filler material should be wood or cane mesh, and the mud put to both sides of the panels should be equal parts straw and mud.Furthermore, a continuous system of ring beams on prefabricated panels and homes is proposed to help uniformly distribute roof loads and ensure integrality.
Recommendation for Seismic Earthen Wall Construction
In earthquake-prone areas, there are numerous guidelines for earthen wall construction. The supply of a vertical buttress wall, an intermediate strengthen member for lengthy walls, is one of these concerns. The maximum height of the wall should not exceed eight times the wall’s thickness.It’s also a good idea to build outside pilasters for all of the wall joints and corners. This is because the wall’s and the building’s seismic stability would be much improved.In addition, the width of the wall opening shall not exceed 1.2m, and the distance between the opening and the outside corner should be at least 1.2m.
In size zones A, B, and C, the total width of apertures in a wall shall not exceed one-third of the total wall length. Furthermore, the lintel embedment or bearing length on either side of wall openings shall not be less than 50cm. Finally, the hand-built wall should taper upward, retaining a minimum of 30cm width at the top and gradually increasing this width with a batter of 1:12 at the bottom.
Rammed earth walls are built by ramming a mixture of selected aggregates into place between flat panels called formwork, containing gravel, sand, silt, and a tiny quantity of clay. To crush the earth mixture, traditional technology repeatedly pushed the end of a wooden rod into it.
An earth structure is a building or other structure made largely from soil.
These walls are constructed by ramming a mixture of aggregates, including gravel, sand.
In many parts of the world, including India, the roof is supported by wooden beams.