While in college, I was particularly interested in structural analysis and design, especially foundations. After joining a good firm, I expected to become a master in analysis and design. However, after joining Asia’s No. 1 Construction Company, I became aware of the true construction process.
The first part of construction is analysis and design, followed by site execution. After the site inspection and the sort of structure requested by the client, analysis and design are completed. This is the most crucial stage of the construction process because it determines the finished result. Any tiny flaw in the design might result in a massive disaster and loss of life and property, hence it must be done by a professional.
A person can be an expert in analysis and design, but without he gets site exposure, he may not be a successful designer. The true construction experience comes from being on the job site, where we can watch the work being done in front of our eyes and identify and learn from design flaws. A person with site expertise can be a competent designer since he understands the construction issues that arise on the job. So, in order to be a competent designer, we must begin with the site.
Converting vision into reality is the process of construction. To turn our ideas into reality, we imagine something that doesn’t exist, then sketch it out, analyse it, design it, and then put it into action on site.
The following are the various types of construction:
1. Construction of buildings and infrastructure
2. Construction is extensive.
3. Construction of industrial buildings
We follow the processes below for any significant building project:
4. Turning over
Before tendering, we conduct a site investigation and prepare an approximate structure design. We then use an empirical formula derived from experience to calculate the project’s approximate cost and quote our price. Following the award of the tender, the contractor analyses and designs the detailed plan of the project. Following the client’s approval, the detailed drawings are forwarded to the job site for implementation. The product is then turned over to the client after the execution phase is completed.
Construction Contract Types
1 A lump sum payment is usually made when a project is procured via the Design-Bid-Build approach.
A lump sum contract, also known as a predetermined sum contract, is the most basic type of agreement between a service provider and a customer. The supplier commits to supply certain services at a certain price. The receiver agrees to pay the fee when the job is completed or according to a payment schedule that has been agreed upon. The builder will estimate labour and material costs, then add a standard amount for overhead and the desired profit margin to create a lump sum bid.
2 Unit Cost The job to be performed is divided into multiple pieces, usually by construction trade, and a fixed price is agreed for each unit of work under a unit price contract. Painting, for example, is usually done on a square foot basis. Unit pricing contracts are rarely utilised for the entirety of a large construction project, although they are regularly used for subcontractor agreements. They’re utilised for routine maintenance and repairs. A unit pricing contract, similar to a lump sum contract, pays the contractor the agreed-upon amount regardless of the actual cost of the work.
3 Construction Administration In this delivery mode, an architect engaged by OSU prepares fully completed drawings and specifications, and a Construction Manager (CM) is chosen to construct the project. During the design process, the CM offers guidance. The CM is chosen from three to five organisations based on competitive proposals.The CM method is distinct from the others in the following ways:
The construction manager’s construction management employees and their required time on the project are approved by the project manager.Throughout programming and design, the CM provides pre-construction services such as construction cost estimating and constructability review.
The project manager approves the list of subcontractor bidders as well as the subcontractors who are chosen.
4 Design-Build Projects Although this method is not commonly employed because to the Owner’s incapacity to regulate quality, it is difficult to confirm adherence to particular materials by the Contractor, and it is tough to make adjustments with this method.
Design-Build is an old construction process that has fallen out of favour until recently. During this step, the owner chooses a single contractor to design and construct the project. In Oklahoma, the owner normally chooses a builder, who then employs the design team as needed. The primary goal of Design-Build is to save time. Pre-construction services, like Construction Management, allow designers and builders to collaborate from the start, reducing design time and effort. If the drawings are not in great detail, it is not required to prepare them.
The physical operations of building, landscaping, or refurbishing, as well as other associated activities such as demolition, site clearance, administration, and so on, are referred to as the ‘construction process.’
Contractors often perform construction work, while they may be referred to as builders or housebuilders in the housing sector, and contractors may hire subcontractors and other suppliers to complete some or all of the job.
Following a procurement process, the process may begin with the client handing over the site to the contractor and conclude with the client receiving a completed project. It excludes pre-construction operations such as short preparation, design team formation, and so on, though these activities may be included.
Surveying and positioning; laying assembly platform; assembling the turnout (same procedures as ballast turnout); installing tie supports, vertical support bolts, and adjusting the height; installing anchor blocks or lateral supports and adjusting the lateral position of the turnout (first adjustment), as removing the assembly platfom removing the conversion equipment; collaboratively debugging the engineering and electrical facilities (third adjustment); As indicated, checking, adjusting (fourth adjustment), and fixing; casting concrete, curing, and removing the bracing system and formwork.
Meetings to Discuss the Status of the Project Various meetings will be held at the job site throughout the construction process, the majority of which are organised well in advance. These meetings are normally held at regular intervals, usually bi-weekly or monthly, depending on the type of project and the agreement between the lender and the administrator, unless an unplanned special meeting is called to address unique issues.
The major goal of these meetings is to discuss and review the project’s progress, as well as to give a venue for the main participants (administration, contractor, subcontractor, architect, engineers, and others) to discuss their concerns and a payment application that has been submitted. The administrator normally chairs these sessions, which can be rather formal in tone.
Technologies that are crucial The ballastless turnout is modified and positioned by vertical and lateral positioning and bracing systems before concrete is poured. Furthermore, any elevation of the railway panel during concreting should be avoided. The geometric smoothness of a turnout is determined by the stability, adjustability capability, and precision of the bracing systems.
This laying mode’s technical issues are as follows.The laying condition and geometric smoothness of the turnout will be confirmed initially when laying a ballastless turnout. There will be a lot of adjustment work; the turnout will be altered seven times during the laying process. For laying the ballastless turnout, thorough surveying and fine tweaking of track geometry in the turnout area are also essential.
Building considerationsThe sort of bridge that is built is frequently determined by the erection and building methods. As previously noted, factors such as the availability and cost of specific materials, the skill set of the local labour force, and the expertise of local contractors all influence the style of bridge that is chosen.
For example, if there are a lot of steel fabricators in the area of the bridge site but no precast concrete fabricators, precast concrete would be a good option. If the local workforce lacks the necessary skills for steel erection, bridge designs that make the most of cast-in-place concrete may be the best option. For grade separation structures, cast-in-place concrete is ideal.
The length of time given for construction by the owner might also influence the bridge type. If time is of the essence, optimising the usage of precast parts may be the best option. As a result, segmental concrete bridges or some of the newer expedited bridge construction techniques could be used.When choosing bridge kinds, it’s always a good idea to look at previous work bid histories.
Because such information is lacking in some parts of the world, determining the construction advantages of one bridge type made of one material over another is challenging. In this situation, bidding alternate designs has a distinct advantage. Only large projects are normally cost-effective using this method.
Keeping the Surface Clean To ensure bonding quality, it is necessary to thoroughly clean the adherend surfaces, removing impurities like as water, oil stains, rusty stains, and paint residues.